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The Variations Between Method 1’s MGU-H and MGU-Ok

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Daniel Ricciardo during practice for the 2022 Hungarian Grand Prix.

Daniel Ricciardo throughout follow for the 2022 Hungarian Grand Prix.
Photograph: Francois Nel (Getty Photographs)

Final weekend, Formula 1 Red Bull Racing drivers Max Verstappen and Sergio Perez each wanted some critical powertrain overhauls, which included each the MGU-H and MGU-Ok programs. If that appears like nothing however a jumble of letters to you, then you definitely’re not alone — and that’s why as we speak, we’re trying into what each of those programs do.

(Welcome to Motorsport Explained, the sequence the place we break down racing guidelines and ideas in simply digestible methods for all of the newcomers on the market. If there’s one thing you’ve at all times puzzled about or one thing that has by no means made sense, depart your matter within the feedback or electronic mail me at eblackstock [at] jalopnik [dot] com.)

In a Nutshell

To place this as merely as doable, each the MGU-H and the MGU-Ok are a part of a contemporary F1 hybrid: the Motor Generator Unit – Heat, and the Motor Generator Unit – Okinetic, respectively. They’re two elements of the power restoration system (ERS) and an evolution of the earlier kinetic power restoration system (KERS) that was launched in 2009.

Now, let’s get into particulars.

Motor Generator Unit – Warmth (MGU-H)

In a sentence, the MGU-H harvests thermal power from an F1 automobile’s exhaust and is an advanced a part of a turbocharger. A turbo consists of two elements: a turbine and a compressor which might be joined by a shaft. The turbine is related to the automobile’s exhaust, and the compressor is related to the consumption. The exhaust gases trigger the turbine to spin, which in flip spins the compressor, which then sucks in air and compresses it earlier than sending it down the consumption. The system altogether creates a extra environment friendly method to get a variety of air into an engine directly, in order that engine can burn gas extra rapidly and improve energy.

The MGU-H is popped proper in between the turbine and the compressor. Like a daily turbo, the MGU-H additionally harvests exhaust gasoline. What’s totally different right here, although, is that the MGU-H is made up of magnets that spin round when it’s stuffed with exhaust gasoline. These magnets generate electrical power, which is then despatched to, basically a battery, prepared for use when want be.

All that being mentioned, the MGU-H additionally acts as a motor in sure situations.

If your turbos, of the phenomenon known as “turbo lag.” Sometimes, if you step on the accelerator, the turbine takes a second or two to spin up and reply to your direct throttle enter. The MGU-H steps in, taking up a motor-like function to eradicate turbo lag by offering energy in these lull moments.

Motor Generator Unit – Kinetic (MGU-Ok)

The MGU-Ok is an evolution of the unique KERS unit, and it’s fairly just like the MGU-H. As a substitute of being connected to the turbo, the MGU-Ok is connected to the crankshaft. When a driver presses the accelerator, the MGU-Ok turns into somewhat motor that provides its personal energy on prime of the engine’s energy. When activated, it provides about 161 horsepower to the automobile’s complete output, however it will probably solely be activated for temporary moments of time.

If a driver opts to slow down, although, the MGU-Ok generates power. It, too, is made up of spinning magnets just like the MGU-H, however right here these magnets are utilized by the MGU-Ok to reap the kinetic power in the crankshaft. This helps drivers decelerate extra rapidly due to the added resistance, and moreover provides power to the automobile’s batteries.

The Energy Unit

As talked about earlier than, the MGU-H and MGU-Ok kind the power restoration system of an F1 hybrid engine. The ERS can also be half of the facility unit, with the opposite half being the combustion engine. In a hybrid system, each combustion and electrical energy work collectively to create the facility that’s deployed on the race observe.

Trying to the Future

As you possibly can think about, all these spinning magnets can get costly. So, as a part of F1’s rising effort to cut back the prices of competitors, the MGU-H will likely be no extra in F1’s 2026 new energy unit laws. The MGU-H is particularly very expensive to develop. As for the MGU-Ok, it can stay, as present laws restrict the quantity of energy that the system can get better.

Because the World Motor Sport Council put it, the aim is to open the doorways to “newcomers” to “make it doable for them to affix the game at a aggressive degree.” In any case, most automakers don’t use the MGU-H on street vehicles, so creating one for racing functions doesn’t make a ton of sense. In the meantime, the ideas derived from the MGU-Ok are extremely related to battery regeneration for electrical and hybrid autos.

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